Like almost any new Android version, Android 11 ships with a selection of new emoji — 117, to be exact. If you currently want to use them in texts and messages, you need to copy and paste them from resources like Emojipedia, but that's finally changing. The latest Gboard beta is adding initial support for the new Emoji 13 set on Android 11.
Once you install Gboard version 126.96.36.1999852869, you'll notice the additions in the regular emoji panel, accessible by tapping and holding the comma button. Scrolling through the emoji, you'll see new entries such as bubble tea, Mrs. Claus, a boomerang, a black cat, a seal, a polar bear, and many more. For now, you can't use the search bar to find any of these, though — you'll have to look for them manually. This will almost certainly change before the emoji come to the stable release of Gboard.
Keep in mind that virtually no operating system out there except for beta releases can handle the new smilies, so you might have to wait for a few more months until you can rely on these in chats, once Apple and third-party Android apps add support for them.