Getting the kernel source code for devices is something of a rite of passage for new Android phones. In the United States and other parts of the world with heavy smartphone penetration, the focus is on the big, flashy flagship models - the sooner the kernels are published, the sooner those ROM makers can get cracking on custom ROMs and kernels. But considering the immediate response that Google's Android One program has received, I think those phones may turn out to be some of the most popular ROM recipients around.
Google published the kernel source code for the first Android One phones late tonight or early this morning, depending on your global perspective. The Spice Dream UNO Mo-498, the Karbonn Sparkle V, and the Micromax Canvas A1 all use the same builds for now. At this point they all have identical low-end specifications (though that might not always be the case for future A1 hardware), and so they're getting identical software from Google, the better to keep them updated quickly. You can see the source code for the main kernel here, and there's also a small addition to fix a gyroscope bug.
The Android One phones will be quickly updated straight from Google, including a guaranteed upgrade to Android L when it becomes available. You can expect timely publishing of source code for every new update. But perhaps by then, a few hundred thousand early adopters in India will already be running CyanogenMod, or even a home-grown alternative.
Update: the original Google Groups link was to the wrong kernel file. The post was updated, and we've updated this story with the correct link as well.