After seeing a deluge of rumors, leaks, and hoax after hoax this season, it looks like we're finally starting to wind down. With Google's Android event a mere 8 days away, it's time to clear away the muck and take a look at what we expect to make an appearance just a couple days before Halloween. Let's start with the stuff we're most confident in and work our way down, shall we?

Android 4.2 Jelly Bean

We were already fairly confident that the next version of Android would not be 5.0. While Google is inconsistent with its naming and number scheme, The company does tend to at least save full number releases for big changes (2.0 brought a huge face lift, Navigation and the Droid, 3.0 introduced tablets, 4.0 brought tablets and phones together under the biggest UI change yet). We've also confirmed via Ron's super sleuthing that this version will be called Jelly Bean as most apps identify themselves as either "4.2-[###]" or "JellyBeanMR1".

As for what will come in Android 4.2...

A New Gmail

gmail1 gmail2 gmail3

If you were around when we first posted this (and you're rooted), you might already be using it, but we know that the newest version of Android includes an upgrade to the Gmail app. Now, you'll finally be able to pinch-to-zoom on emails (oh, blessed be), as well as swiping individual emails to the side to archive or delete them. As Matias Duarte has said in interviews, he wants Android to see things not as lists of data, but as tangible things for your to interact with and gestures go a long way towards accomplishing that goal. This is certainly a welcome change.

Quick Settings Panel

One of the first things Ron found in his teardown of the leaked system dump was a hidden, secondary shade. Swipe down once to reveal notifications, swipe down a second time to access something called Quick Settings. Of course, we have no idea what will appear here or how it will look. As of right now, there's only a placeholder image, but given that Ron thinks the build he has is at least a month old, we imagine that it won't be too difficult for Google to implement this before the end of October.

Security Features


If things like SELinux or always-on VPN mean something to you, then you're probably going to have a very good day on October 29th. In part two of the 4.2 teardown, Ron found plenty of references to important security features for enterprise users. In addition, there looks to be a new feature that will prompt you whenever an SMS you're about to send could charge your account any money. This should make it much more difficult for text scammers to take advantage of you. Very nice.

New Gallery App

gallery1 gallery2 gallery3

If you like the look of the newest Google+ app or Google Now, you're going to love the new Gallery. In what looks to be a continuation of the attempt to bring Android's design language under one cohesive roof, the app now features a brighter, card-like interface. Additionally, both the Camera and Gallery apps have new placeholder icons in the system. While those icons themselves probably won't be making an appearance, Google will probably be providing updated versions of them. Hopefully ones that have something of a consistent height.

Multiple User Accounts For Tablets

We've known it was coming for a while, and it looks like we might be close to getting it. While code has existed supporting multiple user profiles dating back as far as 2011, both the level of progress we've seen, and other independent sources leads us to believe that it's not unlikely Google will finally implement this feature. It may initially be available only to tablet users under the name "Tablet Sharing" which, to be honest, makes a lot of sense. I share my tablet way more often than I share my phone and, as a larger, sometimes Wi-Fi only device with a bigger up-front price tag, tablets are more suited to being family devices than phones are. The argument could even be made that slates are the only category of Android hardware that needs this feature. Either way, though, it will be welcome.

Google Now Improvements

When Google first announced its card-based app, it was promised that we'd see updates to it. And we have! In addition to emphasizing gesture-based UI, Matias Duarte has also specified that Google Now is a platform. Given the intentionally extensible nature of the program, outside sources pointing to upgrades, and the fact that the event invite itself is designed to look like Google Now's landing page, I'd be pretty taken aback if there wasn't some new feature. It's worth pointing out that there are already indicators that things like hardware controls (toggling WiFi, Bluetooth, etc.) are being worked on, but "not yet supported". This may be on the list of things we'll see activated, but that's pure speculation.

2012-10-21 15.17.52 2012-10-21 15.18.03 2012-10-21 15.18.28

Send In The Nexuses

Of course, what good is all this software without stuff to run it on? Rumors have swirled for a long time that there will be an expanded Nexus program where every manufacturer gets a taste. As the day approaches and we hear and see plenty about LG's Nexus Sparkle 4, while other Nexus rumors get stomped into oblivion, it looks less likely that there will be an array of Nexus phones on tap. But did you know that the Nexus program has already been expanded under your very nose? Yep. There are already two current-generation Nexii: the Nexus 7 and the Galaxy Nexus. Given that definition, here is how we expect the new lineup to look come October 29th:

Nexus 4 By LG


Seen here posing next to a stuffed parrot because that's what you do when you're a phone. Duh.

You've seen it in pictures.  Then you saw it in more pictures. Then you saw it in even more pictures.  At this point, doubting that an LG Nexus device exists is simply foolhardy. Modeled somewhat after the Optimus G with a bit of Google's hardware design language thrown in, this device looks to be the newest flagship phone. While all of the specs are certainly subject to change, here is the best list of details we've gathered:

  • 4.7" 1280x768 display
  • Quad-core Snapdragon S4 Pro (APQ8064) CPU
  • Adreno 320 GPU
  • 2GB RAM
  • 8GB/16GB on-board storage
  • 8MP rear shooter, 1.3MP front
  • 2100mAh battery
  • 9.1mm thick
  • Android "JB MR1"
  • LTE (MDM9615)

These specs more or less line up with the guts of the Optimus G that David reviewed recently. We can probably also expect NFC and, if FCC documents are anything to go by, wireless charging will probably also be in the mix, confirming MoDaCo's source. If they're not enough to go by, Ron has also pointed out (though it never made it into an article), that the system dump he's been tearing down has references to wireless charging. That just about seals the deal there.

We're all still holding out hope that there will be more than 8GB and 16GB options for storage and, if there is any spec on this sheet we'd have reason to doubt, it's that one, if only for common sense reasons. Still, it wouldn't be the strangest thing we'd seen on a Nexus phone (the 5MP camera on the Galaxy Nexus is still widely panned). We'll just have to wait and see.

Nexus 7 (32GB and 3G) By ASUS


For starters, the 32GB Nexus 7 is real. This isn't a question. Some users have even had it mistakenly shipped to their house in place of a 16GB model, and virtually every single friggin' retailer on the planet has outed it in their systems. We can probably expect that this device will make its way to the stage next week. What is a little less certain, but something we'd still keep an eye out for, is a 3G version of the slate. We'd previously heard in early September that the device would arrive in "around six weeks." That would actually make it a little late at this point, however, it's not difficult to imagine that Google delayed the release for a week or two to put them all on one stage.

Nexus 10 By Samsung


A possible tablet form-factor that doesn't infringe any of Apple's design patents.

We've seen evidence of a larger tablet codenamed the manta floating around. Independently, we'd heard that Samsung was working on a 10.1" device with Google, with a mind-blowing 2560x1600 resolution for an iPad-trouncing 299 ppi. Finally, these two rumors come together—where else?—in our server logs when the 'Nexus 10' moniker decided to poke its head out of its shell. As of right now, the details on this slate are more scanty than the other rumors, but, call us hopeful, we would not be surprised to see this device come to pass. As it turns out, we're not the only ones.

What About The Occam?

This one is a little more up-in-the-air, since we don't have much but conjecture and server logs to go on, but we do have evidence that a device with the codename "Occam" is running around with Android 4.2 on it. If we want to consolidate rumors, it would probably be simpler to say that this is the LG Nexus, however that device carried the codename "Mako." It's possible Google/LG gave it two codenames, but that's a stretch. Unfortunately, we don't have any other information on this device. We wouldn't put money on the Occam (possibly a Nexus RAZR?) putting in some face time at this event, but who knows?

The Whole Multiple Nexii Thing


A totally hypothetical, not-at-all real look at what a multiple Nexus program might look like. 

So, you see what's happened here? Even ignoring the peculiar Occam anomaly, and without disrupting the usual patterns too much, we now have three separate Nexus devices from three separate manufacturers, all with a reasonable chance at being announced next week. Two, at least, we know for a fact exist, and the Nexus 10 has enough sources out there that, if it doesn't show up on the 29th, we can still probably expect it at some point.

So, if you were expecting that the expanded Nexus program meant that HTC, Sony, LG, Samsung, and Motorola would all have their own Nexus phones, and then there would also be tablets...well, it's not impossible, but there sure is a giant lack of evidence for that. However, we do see a suite of Nexus devices. And, wouldn't you know it, the earliest reference to the multiple Nexus lineup came from the Wall Street Journal back in May. Just a month before the announcement of the Nexus 7. In a small way, that rumor has already been fulfilled for months. We just didn't know it yet. Nor how much more the program might be expanded. We wouldn't be surprised to see the Galaxy Nexus stick around for a bit (though low sales numbers might make that questionable), but even if it doesn't, LG, ASUS, and Samsung, as well as the possibility of a fourth device, could all be represented on the Play Store very soon.

The truth always seems to land somewhere between optimism and doubt.

So, What Shouldn't We Expect

For starters, we absolutely know that things like the Customization Center and Project Roadrunner were part of an elaborate hoax. Just to indulge a bit, though, why shouldn't we expect Google to do something like the Customization Center anyway? After all, there sure are a lot of us who hate custom skins and want them to go away, right?

Well, maybe not. For starters, while we, the Android die-hards, are avidly against the idea of manufacturer skins, we also have to realize that we're the minority. By a pretty huge margin. Whether it's because most people aren't aware of stock Android or just don't care, things like the Galaxy S III outsell the Galaxy Nexus to the tune of millions. In fact, the Nexus 7 might actually be the biggest hit the Nexus line has seen yet. That is not proof that everyone loves skinned Android, but if everyone is voting with their wallets, then so far stock Android has not managed to beat the bloat for mindshare.

That being the case, Google is likely very unmotivated to push manufacturer skins out. As of January of this year, it's required that the Holo UI elements be made available so that app developers can have a consistent look and feel, but that is so that developers have the choice, not so that choice is removed from manufacturers. Duarte has stated before that making it possible to remove skins is something that would be difficult to do now, but not inconceivable in the future. However, the company would "never do anything that would discourage that choice or prevent OEMs from having that kind of flexibility". As nice as the Customization Center idea might be, we'll have to accept that it will be a long time before we see something like it, if we ever do at all.

Project Roadrunner, which was the completely made-up feature that purported to ensure battery life across all devices in the same way that Project Butter would ensure speed, is similarly likely not to be in the works. Of course, Google will want to push to make devices last longer (in fact, this is one of the things that the new Motorola CEO suggested is a priority for its future phones), however ensuring your handset lasts all day is as much tied to hardware drivers, which Google has little control over, as it does the system itself. An OS-level layer that sets a minimum bar for battery life is likely something that's simply not feasible.


Don't expect this, unless you like to be disappointed.

Also in the category of things you probably shouldn't count on is a Sony or HTC Nexus device. While it's not impossible (we do still have that Occam hanging around not saying much), the Sony leaks have been faked and most HTC rumors have been centered around the J Butterfly or American variations thereof. Motorola isn't doing too much better in convincing us that it has a Nexus in the pipe, aside from the pun with the Occam name, but down here at the bottom of the hope barrel, we'd rank Moto just a hair above Sony or HTC in terms of likely attendees at the event.

At The End Of All Things

Of course, none of this is guaranteed, but this is what we think is most likely given the amount of evidence, the variety and reliability of sources, and the general consistency with previously established patterns. Even if half of what we've covered here is true, though, it's sure to be a good day. And, just as predictably, we're sure the lawsuits over what's going to be announced are already being planned.

Eric Ravenscraft
Eric is a snarky technophile with a taste for the unusual. When he's not obsessing about Android, you can usually find him obsessing about movies, psychology, or the perfect energy drink. Eric weaves his own special blend of snark, satire, and comedy into all his articles.

  • https://plus.google.com/u/0/108482452903817442299/posts Andrew Bone

    I've been saying the whole
    "The Whole Multiple Nexii Thing"
    since the begining

    • Alex

      Bravo. Then you've been a smart man since the beginning This multiple Nexii could really reinvent the whole fragmentation problem...

      • tsunami1609

        In what way? The keyword in it isn't multiple, it's Nexii. Since they're nexus devices, they'll be directly supported by google, and the software will stay updated.

        If you're talking about hardware, it's no different from Apple's system. Galaxy Nexus = iPhone4s. LG Nexus = iPhone 5. Nexus 7 = iPad Mini. Nexus 10 = iPad.

        Either you're trolling, or you don't understand the meaning of fragmentation....

        • Tyler Chappell

          /sigh, and it's not "Nexii" people, it's "Nexuses".

          • John O’Connor

            or you could go with
            The Latin plural form (written nexûs or nexūs)

          • Justin W

            Damn! Nexii sounds so much better :)

        • marcusmaximus04

          You're including an unconfirmed Apple tablet *and* an unconfirmed nexus tablet as evidence?

  • Freak4Dell

    Is the Occam still showing up in your logs regularly, or has it disappeared since the original post about it?

    • http://www.androidpolice.com/ Artem Russakovskii

      It has disappeared, along with Manta. Manta is almost certainly the Nexus 10, but I'm confused as to what occam is now, since we know the LG Nexus 4 is mako.

  • http://twitter.com/ElooieIV Edward Lewis

    If I could have it my way a RAZR M nexus and a version of the butterfly would round out the devices. That hits just about every screen size and every major OEM except Sony (who I would still like to see make something)

    • Freak4Dell

      A RAZR M Nexus would have me needing new pants.

    • http://twitter.com/mimrixmike Frettfreak

      That would be my ideal device at the moment... The razor m... Just the bright size imo

  • squiddy20

    I'll pass on the Google Now improvements to be able to toggle hardware functions. I already have a quicker method via Cyanogenmod's status bar toggles, as do countless other ROMs. :)

    • http://twitter.com/ElooieIV Edward Lewis

      Why you might not need it, Wouldn't it still Be a nice addition? I'm still holding onto hope they release an api for Google now cards so other APPS can populate it.

      • http://www.androidpolice.com/author/eric-ravenscraft/ Eric Ravenscraft

        I'm on the fence about this. On the one hand, having Google Now being limited strictly to information that Google itself knows or thinks I'll find useful feels small. On the other hand, I am positively terrified of how cluttered it could become if even legitimate apps decide to plug into it in an attempt to be "helpful".

        The last thing I need is Spotify sharing playlists it thinks I might like right now, Facebook adding in my friends' status updates, and IMDb telling me the latest thing Keanu Reeves is shoving his bland face into. At least for right now, I'm okay with other apps sitting this out.

        • http://twitter.com/ElooieIV Edward Lewis

          It definitely could be an ugly rabbit hole to go down but if you had to add app specific cards then it could be useful and it should be turned off by default and all an app can do is make some of its info accessible depending on specific parameters and Now can use it or not.

        • marcusmaximus04

          Of course, Google could always put options to turn off any 3rd party google now cards in the settings.

      • squiddy20

        I'm not saying it won't be a nice addition, I just wouldn't use it. In the time it'd take you to swipe up on the home key, say "Google", and then "turn on wifi", I'd have swiped down on the notification/status bar, hit the toggle, and go back to what I was doing. Much less time/effort, provided you've got the hardware you're trying to toggle listed in the bar, that is.
        The API for other apps to use it would be a pretty cool improvement. Integration with your favorite weather app (instead of Yahoo) is one of the things I can think of off the top of my head.

    • Joseph Cascio

      Absolutely, I'm running CM10 for the built-in toggle and the percent/circle battery mod. I would love to run official stock software if those two things where included and didn't need separate stand alone apps. Also a Google revamped build-in theme chooser would be f**king awesome.

  • mesmorino

    I just want better battery life and a freaking camera button. And throw in a kick stand while we're at it.

    • http://visionaforethought.wordpress.com/ Oflife

      Motorola RAZR i has a camera button that launches the camera INSTANTLY! I can confirm this having played with one here in the UK. Ideal camera for the European market, who like smaller thinner phones. No kickstand tho, although there are some kickstand equipped iPhone cases, but the multiple form factors of Android devices makes it harder for case makers to justify the investment.

      • mesmorino

        I'm not gonna lie, the RAZR phones are really starting to look good to me. Better battery life AND a camera button? It's looking really good

    • Tyler Chappell

      +1 for the kickstand, I use the kickstand on my Thunderbolt nearly every time I am eating somewhere. It is almost an indispensible feature for me

  • http://btwnworlds.tumblr.com/ Lou G

    I am personally happy with anything google announces. I went from iOS to Android with the nexus 7 so all I can say is gimme me more.

  • http://www.dsaif.tk/ Saif

    Occam is based on HTC DLX..

    I Hope :P

    • http://twitter.com/mimrixmike Frettfreak

      Lmao... You have absolutely zero proof of anything relating to the occam why would you even post this?

      • http://www.dsaif.tk/ Saif

        I hope it's HTC or Motorola (with Google inspired design, their recent designs look crap)

  • Jörgen Pettersson

    No updates/hardware modifications for Nexus Q?

    • MelchiahX

      I think we'll definitely be seeing the Nexus Q make an appearance. At least I'm hoping for it. Also wondering what the new Q will feature over the original Q. I'm hoping they'll still be manufacturing this thing in the US as I'm all for supporting the local economy even if it means paying more than something from China. Fuck sakes Apple charges a fortune and all their shit is assembled in china.

  • Gav456

    Gief HTC DLneXus running 4.2 in the UK on 4gEE. #shutupandtakemymoney

  • PhilNelwyn

    "The playground is open..." what about that rumored game center?

    • Darian Fisher

      "The playground is open... " has (I think) always been about the nexus 7

      • PhilNelwyn

        Oh yes, that's correct, I had forgotten this.
        So they're "just" teasing a new tablet?

        • mmmcfc

          I think it's a reference to the name of Google's content store - the Google Play Store. Just my 2 cents (or pennies over here)

          • Darian Fisher


  • Omphalos

    Is it just a coincidence that "occam" is suspiciously similar to "mako" backwards (okam)? Could it just be the VZW variant of the LG Nexus 4, for example?

    • http://twitter.com/tmadd8 Tyler Maddocks

      You beat me to it! I think there may be a connection here. What else would Mako mean?

      • Kenny O

        Mako is a species of shark, thus fits in with the whole naming Nexus phones after fish.

        • Justin W

          I've never paid attention to this, but it's good to know, thanks!

          • Kenny O

            Yes sir ;-) .....Also of note, the Mako is the fastest of all sharks and is arguably the fastest fish in the sea. From the specs it would appear this phone is going to live up to it's code name

    • http://twitter.com/PCSievers P.C. Sievers

      looool. Look up "Occam's razor" on wikipedia.

      • Justin W

        This theory may be incorrect according to Occam's Razor, but I vote we go with it: "other things being equal, a simpler explanation is better than a more complex one." I'd say its a Moto RAZR Nexus ;-)

  • Guest

    I just realized that Mako spelled backwards is Okam which is very similar to Occam. Let the speculation begin.

    • Kenny O

      I don't see them changing the spelling like that, if spelling Mako backward was the idea I think they would have just called it "Okam". I think the most likely thing is that it is a Razor device that they were testing but not ready to bring out yet if at all. I'm interested to know if this device has popped up in the server logs any other times recently and if it showed as one single device or if they show several Occams are out there.

      • Ace

        I'd say its Razr too... Occam's Razor was the first thing that came to my mind when I read it.. Don't know if the saying itself has anything to do with it.. o.O

  • Disqus Sucks

    There's only one thing I want in 4.2. NCAA sports in Google Now. That's it. That's all I ask for. If they don't do it, 4.2 will be a complete failure for me.

  • http://twitter.com/PCSievers P.C. Sievers

    I think its a really long shot but if any manufacturer could produce a Nexus phone out of nowhere it is definitely Samsung who produced the S3 in complete secrecy with basically zero leaked info.

    The $99 budget Nexus tablet isnt impossible either given there are leaks from manufacturers gearing up to produce them

  • spydie

    why do skinned phones out sell the Nexus phones? Geez, it's not rocket science. the Nexus phones are not state-0f-the-art. With quadcores being released, and twice the RAM and everyone has a larger screen, there's no reason to get the Nexus except the lack of skinning and quicker updates. That's not quite enough to capture the public's quest for state of the art... if the public wasn't constantly after the latest state-of-the-art, then nobody would update their phones every couple months. The nexus phones lag way behind because they are a year apart in seeing new ones. And they are usually outdated before they are released. Give me a state-of-the-art Nexus (2 gb RAM, 5"+ screen, quadcore) and I might go for it... but I'd probably still get a note because the "skinning" actually adds a lot of functionality that stock android doesn't offer.

    • MelchiahX

      Well the LG Nexus 4 is state of the art . I think Google knows it needs more nexus devices out there to help curb fragmentation. I'm always gonna buy nexus devices...mainly because of the timely updates. When my Gnex went from ICS to JB of was like buying a whole new phone. And let's be honest, the Gnex has less than stellar hardware but its perfect harmony of software + hardware made that phone incredible. So now that the Nexus 4 will have top of the line hardware (which is futureproof) along with the newest OS version you can bet this thing is going to be a monster. My only gripe about the N4 would be the 8/16 GB. I would much rather have a 16/32 GB option like the new N7 will have. It just makes so much more sense.

      • http://twitter.com/CPCookieMan Paul H.

        You guys are kidding right? The Galaxy Nexus has very good hardware. Yeah, it doesn't quite match up with phones released now, but it's also approaching a year old. And too, I have one, it definitely shows no lacking in performance. Honestly, I doubt if the LG Nexus will preform any better at all given the spec sheet it has. I really think that at least part of it is wrong though, why would they take a 32GB predecessor and say, "Nah, let's make it smaller. A quarter of the storage space as the base model. That will make people jump out of their seats to upgrade." If this is all that's coming out come the 29th, I'm waiting another year with my Galaxy Nexus.

        • Matthew Fry

          "Honestly, I doubt if the LG Nexus will preform any better at all given the spec sheet it has." Seriously? The quad core S4 beats the SIII by ~70-100% in benchmarks (video & processor) and the SIII outperforms the Galaxy Nexus by about 20%. You will see a noticeable improvement in the LG Nexus. I guarantee it.

  • Kenny O

    I can't wait for this event. I think I'm going to freeze myself and then have one of my friends thaw me out next Monday. What could go wrong.....

    • jim

      Oh my god..you killed yourself..you bastard..

  • Lien Wee Hoo

    Wish to have multi-view. Microsoft Surface is getting there.

  • defaulty 7

    One word: nexus q.

  • Mr.A

    Latest update added landscape mode to nexus 7 , so they may finally release a dock for it.

  • Jess B

    Nexus 10 - take my money!

    • onpoint G

      Can I take it! :)

  • tyguy829

    What if occam is a different variant of the Nexus 4 (cdma and/or lte)? The galaxy nexus variants all had different codenames...maguro, yajku, toro...etc

    • Justin W

      Occam possibly an LTE version? I think ill drop my RAZR HD for that. And my unlimited data.

  • Preveen Rodrigo

    Sony fans still have that hope that releasing the Xperia S to AOSP will result in good things.

  • Justin W

    Shut up and take my money.

  • dickson wong

    just improve project butter, minimize touch input lag, better scrolling physic that's all i want

    • Pyngwie

      Guy, seems like you read my mind. Totally agree with you!!

  • Darian Fisher

    Can't wait for the new nexus 7! planning to switch from ios to android because Tim cook sucks.

  • Asphyx

    Setting a nexus standard any manufacturer could meet and qualify for is a good idea that is long overdue. The only real issue here is the Carriers will shy away from carrying them. Hard for Google to control updates when each carrier requires it's own proprietary software to operate on thier network. Great for tablets and WiFi only devices but problematic for phones and WLAN )3G,4G) units.
    As far as GNow is concerned I would love to hear they will allow you to set your own keywords so you can program your own actions. That alone would be a SIRI killer.
    What I would really love to see at this event is a renewed commitment to GoogleTV.
    But I doubt anything will be forthcoming there as it seems to have lost steam and with the rumors they are looking to sell off the setop box division would appear to be a market they are getting out of.

  • woof

    occam's razor...that's what you're basing your razr speculation on?

  • Luiz Mazzaferro

    If 4.1 deserves a dessert, why 4.2 wouldn't?
    I don't know if it is important for Google to make sense, but it is for me and the majority of smart people. ;)

  • http://twitter.com/jordanlong20 Jordan Long

    does that new gmail apk work on 4.1.2 devices (wifi xoom) w/o root? Or is it only working via root because its for 4.2?

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Francis-Louis/100000474745284 Francis Louis

    What happened to the Galaxy Nexus 2?

  • Fabian Pineda

    I want just very few things from Google. One is that GNow supports Spanish (and other languages just to be fair), the second thing is that the Google Play Yard is actually open and we, people outside the US, have more access to it.
    Now, dreaming is free isn't it?
    As per the actual things we can expect. I'd feel very much let down if there's a whole new android release. I think it would be just bad for Google to speed up the rythm of updates so hastily. We know OEMs can't just go with that steady flow. I, for one, don't expect a new Android iteration to show up on the 29th.