Last Updated: August 20th, 2012


Ever wondered what the whole Android custom ROM scene was about?

What is all this talk of installing "aftermarket", custom upgrades on your phone?

Who needs it? Why do it? Is it safe?

Don't fret - I'm here to explain - the AndroidPolice Academy is now in session.

By the way, the word ROM means Read Only Memory, but has migrated in the modding community to mean an actual custom OS image that you install into the ROM area of your phone.

Also, the word kernel essentially means the heart of the OS - it's the barebones operating system components.

Custom ROMs

A stock ROM is the version of the phone's operating system that comes with your phone when you buy it.

A custom ROM is a fully standalone version of the OS, including the kernel (which makes everything run), apps, services, etc - everything you need to operate the device, except it's customized by someone in some way.

So what does the "customized" part mean? Since Android is open source, developers are free to take stock ROMs, modify them, strip them of garbage, optimize them, add things, and pretty much do whatever their imagination and skills allow.

Why You Want Custom ROMs

Update Frequency

Using a custom ROM usually results in more frequent updates that fix bugs and introduce new features because the developer behind the ROM doesn't have the same procedures and red tape that the manufacturer+carrier combo does.

  • A quality update can be churned faster because it doesn't involve the bureaucracy of 30 different project managers, 15 vice presidents, and 5 dozen marketing departments.
  • A ROM developer usually gains a loyal community which beta tests his updates in real life situations and provide feedback, or even fixes bugs - that's the beauty of open source software.
  • Oh and did I mention that ROMs are usually free and supported by optional donations? If you can't afford to pay for it, you don't have to.
  • Finally, most custom ROMs out there are updateable over the air (OTA) and without reinstalling anything.

Who doesn't love open source after this?

Better Performance And Efficiency

Custom ROMs are oftentimes faster, more efficient, and use less memory because

  • the developer ripped out useless garbage, such as carrier installed apps or
  • the developer optimized the kernel. For example, an undervolted kernel can provide a much better battery life than the stock one.

Upgrading To A Better/Later Version Of Android

You can upgrade to a version of the OS that has not yet been released for your device, or never will be. This is possible in 2 situations:

  • A leaked version of the new ROM showed up online, and the developer got on it like the fat kid chasing an ice cream truck. This was exactly the case with Hero and Android 2.1, allowing me to upgrade from 1.5 weeks (months) before the official version was available and ditch the bogged down and slow stock OS.
  • A ROM from another phone was ported by the developer to work on yours. For example, G1 and MyTouch 3G users may never see Android 2.1 officially released on their phones, but Cyanogen, one of the most respected Android developers, was recently able to create a custom ROM running 2.1 for those devices. Oh, what a happy day it was for MT3G and G1 owners.

Ability To Install Apps To The SD Card

Most custom ROMs nowadays come with the ability to install applications to the SD card, called Apps2SD (or A2SD).

This is currently not possible on stock ROMs, even in Android 2.1 and is supposedly on Google's TODO list.

If you have run out of space on your phone (which I have repeatedly on my Hero), Apps2SD is a killer feature to have.

About That Rooting Business…

Don't confuse custom ROMs with rooting - they're completely different.

We have explained rooting and its benefits in an article called Rooting Explained + Top 5 Benefits Of Rooting Your Android Phone.

The Downsides Of Custom ROMs

Of course, there are dangers of using custom ROMs which you should be aware of.

Something Could Go Wrong

First of all, something may go wrong with the flashing process (that's the process of installing the ROM) and leave your phone in a bricked state. The chances of this are pretty low nowadays, and most of the time you can restore it back to normal.

Try to go for the ROM that has been tested by time and has lots of positive feedback.

Clean Wipe

In order to install a custom ROM, you need to perform a clean wipe.

This means you will lose all existing data, so you have to back everything up first. Of course, just for this, we have a straightforward tutorial that shows how to back up and restore your entire phone: [Complete Guide] How To Fully Back Up And Restore Your Android Phone Using Nandroid Backup.

Potential Problems

Custom ROMs could have bugs… but then so do the stock ones.

However, in case you do find a bug, you actually have a 2-way channel of reporting it - post in the ROM forum and you will more than likely get an answer back and your bug acknowledged.

Try doing this to your phone manufacturer and see if you can get past the first level of outsourced monkeys, let alone actual developers.

You May Void Your Warranty

It's possible that custom rooting will void your warranty because you will "break the seal" on the boot loader by installing a custom one which on some phones apparently can't be undone (this includes the Nexus One). Because of that, the manufacturer might be able to tell that the phone has had a custom ROM installed and not honor the warranty, in case you need to use it.

Now, in most cases, the benefits of the custom ROM outweigh the possibility of your warranty being denied. I recommend getting a warranty from your carrier and using that in case anything bad happens (that warranty is usually unconditional and covers things like losses and physical damage).

Getting The Right Custom ROM

New phones and ROMs come out all the time, and the scope of this article doesn't cover individual ROMs - but the general approach to finding one is Googling for "YOUR_PHONE_MODEL ROM" or something similar, optionally including the wanted Android version. Try it out - you'll find what you want.


And there you have it - another tutorial is in the can, as Leo Laporte likes to say.

Have you found it useful or got anything to add? Please share in the comments.

Artem Russakovskii
Artem is a die-hard Android fan, passionate tech blogger, obsessive-compulsive editor, bug hunting programmer, and the founder of Android Police.
Most of the time, you will find Artem either hacking away at code or thinking of the next 15 blog posts.

  • Patrick

    Do you have a list of ROM's we can choose from?

    • http://www.AndroidPolice.com Artem Russakovskii

      Patrick, if I were to compile a list into the article, it would get out of date quite fast, so instead I've updated it with a suggestion of how to find a ROM for you.

    • henk


      Thank you very much you really helped me :D

  • Joshua

    Is Froyo for Nexus One available yet? If so then is there a step-by-step procedure to upgrade my Nexus 2.1 to Froyo without the data(installed applications and its data) being lost?

    • http://www.AndroidPolice.com Artem Russakovskii

      Froyo is not available in public to anyone until Google releases it.

      • sarat

        what about the stock rom you guys uploaded?

  • madtc

    I have a HTC eris, rooted, backed up, and metroflashed to the MetroPCS network.
    A "Clean Wipe" erases MetroPCS. So then I can't install a Custom ROM?

  • shash_bro

    Nice write up. I'm newbie and need to read less to understand a lot. Thanks a little made a lot of sense.

  • maniac

    New user. Thanx 4 the info. Still weary of rooting and ROMs so all info is appreciated.

  • Scharina

    Thank u so much for another great tutorial! The information was just what I was looking for! Keep up the good work! I an new to android, and with your guides I've successfully rooted my droid x!

  • Jig

    Excellent post. Gave me a 411 on ROMs in 10 minutes. If only everything was as clear as this. :) However, you said that some phones cannot have their boot loader restores...do you know if the Captivate S can if the phone needs to be restored back?

  • Aaron

    Ya i know how it feels tryign to get even the stock rom from sanyo its driving me nuts they have been saying there will be a update from 1.6 to 2.1 the date is always a month from now. at this point i do not beleive that there will be a update ever im looking for the sprint recovery rom for the sayno zio. or a custom rom with how buggy 1.6 is i have to over clock the phone to get things working correctly since the phone is really buggy with that version. if anyone has information or even a rom i can test in sdk i will be more than happy too.

  • txetxodzilla

    i would like to know if there is a posibility of subtituting the windows ce of the toshiba journe touch for android system. by the way, i am from spain.

  • Dejavu

    Thanks Artem! I'm new to 'rooting' android and your article explained a lot to me!

    Thanks again! :)

  • Amit Mistry

    Nice article. Thanks!

  • Adrian

    very helpful article... THANKS!

  • http://webscopia.com Rabab Khan

    Interesting post which is, I must say, made more interesting by your style. I wrote an article on a similar topic a while back and maybe your readers would find it useful.


  • bluehawk11

    Im sorta new to android, but can this work with a android tablet. I bought one a while ago and I wanted to see if it could work.

    • http://www.AndroidPolice.com Artem Russakovskii

      Yes, absolutely, but it's all on a case by case basis - you should look for custom ROMs for your device, and if you find them, go from there.

      For example, the Viewsonic G-Tablet is very hackable and has many custom ROMs, but the Galaxy Tab is not nearly that flexible and has no fully baked ROMs yet, as far as I know.

  • crazyjay69


  • Saransh

    Heyy i recently bought Dell XCD35 a.k.a ZTE Blade it still runs on android 2.1(eclair) please can u help me in getting froyo I m not able to completely understand what u wrote

  • Saransh

    Heyy i recently bought Dell XCD35 a.k.a ZTE Blade it still runs on android 2.1(eclair) please can u help me in getting froyo I m not able to completely understand what u wrote


  • Numak

    Is it really safe to sign into your google account through custom roms without risking your account/password being stolen?

    • http://www.linuxzone.se JasoX

      I have a custom rom on my phone(Sony Ericsson X8), and this is the third one i use and i have never had issues with my googleaccount being stolen.

  • sunshine is heaven

    i have a droid incredible and i'm not that tech savvy, but i think this sort of made sense so yay! i'm still undecided on how or if i should root but i'm leaning towards taking the risk. i'm just worried that since i dont know much, it may be hard to keep up with newer updates or deal if something goes wrong.

  • Astrowe

    Hey.. that's an awesome article! now finally everybody understands why i'm always flashing my phone som i'm not a freak anymore :D

  • apheCS

    I use Darky's ROM 9.5 Extreme Edition on SGS .. blazing fast :)

  • Muteki

    I have a thunderbolt an rooted it. After backing up my phone using rom manager I installed a new rom all went well untill it booted up. It's freezes at load screen. How do I get the old rom reloaded?

    • wanda

      there is an article on this site to explain the process. just look for back up and restore. it helped me many times.

  • amo

    Incredible all the interesting things you can find here!!! Thanks so much, you are part of the new generation, i don't know where it's going, but it seems to be going furiously fast! thanks again for the tutorials/explanations & keep it going that way

  • ghost

    the term 'outsourced monkeys' is a tad racist.kindly remove it.

    • http://www.AndroidPolice.com Artem Russakovskii

      Too bad it's not a racial reference. But nice try.

    • Miranda

      Someone's a tad PC (and I don't mean personal computer). Grow up.

    • WTF

      Racist? Please... If I were to say providers offer only "vanilla offerings", would I be a racist in your mind too? I mean, after all, I would be linking something that is inferior or mundane to something that is WHITE...

      When racists, like you, accuse non-racists, like this article writer, of being racist, you are being racist...

      When racists, like you, stop accusing others of racism, racism will go away...

      Grow up and get over yourself...

  • Khabela

    Great article! I wish, I had read it before ruining my beloved Flipout...

    Since I did not back up my phone before rooting it and messing with system files, I've got two options; find a stock rom to go back to the original state, or try to fix the cripple by flashing it. Right?

  • aSystemOverload

    Great info in a nut-shell article. Are you aware of any issues that I should be aware in wanting to find a custom ROM for my Defy. I'm on Vodafone in UK on 2.1. I was a little nervous about that not being able to restore the bootloader thing that was mentioned.

  • Garry

    I want to try flashing a Sidekick 2008 to Android (like 2.1 or 2.2 or something, just to at least have android on it).. Anyone know if/how I could do this? :)

  • kin

    Good article. But seriously, Outsourced monkeys? Really? Why so much hatred against people who do your work better than you can and at cheaper rates? Why is it tough for so many people out there to accept this?

    • http://www.AndroidPolice.com Artem Russakovskii

      1. See my comment above about "outsourced monkeys"

      2. "do your work better than you can" - ah, I found the problem in your argument.

      3. "at cheaper rates" - can't argue with that, except to further prove my point. Most companies get what they pay for, and if it's not much, the results won't be very good.

      • kin

        1. I read your comment about outsourced monkeys before posting my comment earlier. I am not saying that you are being racist. What are you trying to imply?
        2 and 3. If many companies are outsourcing their work, its their decision. How are the people who are doing the outsourced work responsible for this? What gives you the right to be calling them monkeys? I may not think of it as a racist comment. However, there are many people including me that are going to be offended by such a comment. I don't see any point in this argument if this doesn't bother you.

        • http://www.AndroidPolice.com Artem Russakovskii

          I've almost never had a positive experience with outsourced support, and monkeys is simply a reference to incompetence. Freedom of speech gives me the right to say it.

        • nice

          very nicely said..

  • Laura

    Awesome explanation! I was getting quite frustrated until I found your tutorials! Thank you!

  • David

    I'm having a problem my CyanogenMod 7 - for some reason large apps won't install (Google Maps, Whatsapp and so on). It flickers at the top for 1 second, then disappears.

    It is really frustrating - any help or suggestions?

  • Siddharth

    I have a galaxy ace do I have to root my phone for installing a custom Rom. ..n plz can u help me. .way does the term bootlaod n reboot mean?

  • Mert

    Hi and thanks for this great article.I wonder,are there any custom roms (like cyanogen) for Samsung Galaxy Mini,what is your suggestion to me ?

  • raydroid

    Thx for ur article. Can u tell me which part in ROM that taking care of band issues? Is it hard to customize from X custom ROM GSM to X custom ROM CDMA? Thx again.

  • SaXio

    for whatever reason because that phrase hit me right in the head while i was reading this article, it has negative overtones for me. i did not put any logic to explain that, it just directly felt bad, at least for someone who lives in the nation that is most associated with service-outsourcing it is more than just disheartening...

  • Meta

    My wildfire is DOES NOT have a custom rom, its laggy and buggy now adays should i root it?

    • Melissa

      While generally older phones do experience better performance with custom roms, it's a good idea to play around with a few first to find one that best suits your needs and allows for good performance of the phone.

  • slayer

    thank you so much for this great information about custom Rom. i have rooted lg optimus p990 2x . can you please suggest me good custom Rom for my mobile. thanks

  • nigel

    hi i would like to know is it posible to upgrade a galaxy ace to android 3.0(honeycomb)...please reply

    • Melissa

      Honeycomb is specifically Tablet only, but you can find roms to give you Ice Cream Sandwich (4.0) and at some point Jelly Bean (4.1).

  • http://androidpolice Soho

    hey, I'm new to this but I love to tinker! I try to be very careful, therefore I like to collect is much information as possible. Your simple encapsulation of a complicated topic has made both of those possible for me to do, safely (kind of important, with a brand new galaxy s 2!). And as someone who has spent a lot of time on the phone with computer tech support, I agree with your outsourcing sentiments. It's a shame the only thing some people got from this great article was some isolated reference they chose to twist into a racist topic.

  • DeepImpact

    I love this website and I am posting for the first time..
    Artem Russakovskii I think you have a very limited idea about "freedom of speech".
    Really, if it was your personal blog then I had no right to question you but this is a very public place!!
    And I am not sure why would you relate "incompetence" with "monkeys" !!
    If you think that all outsourced people are incompetent then call them just that .. why do you need to add "monkeys"?

    • smyk

      Just a quick example. I'm an AutoCAD technician working for architects. I'm a CAD monkey. I know it can be difficult to understand the expressions of native speakers, but it's also good to understand.

  • Qonrad

    I have found these articles very educational, written by someone who can make a complicated subject both live and be understandable. As for the idiomatic semantics of "outsource monkeys", English is a highly idiomatic language, that is what makes it so powerful, it also allows some people to take unnecessary offence, by reading more into the expression used, than was intended.


    • http://www.freetrickz.blogspot.com Ashok

      Awesome Site Man!

  • Stef

    Excellent article, thank you! Keep up the good work.

  • http://downwithfruit.blogspot.com Joe

    I rooted my Evo 4G a week ago and put CyanogenMod7 on it... the difference is amazing from Gingerbread 2.3.3 that I was running before.. It's like a completely new phone. The battery is better, the interface is cleaner, and the phone just generally runs a lot faster and smoother.

  • Shree

    This post was way helpful for gaining knowledge....
    I'm not sure I'm yet ready to do custom roms n all...
    but this post certainly increased my level of knowledge....
    I was total newbie...now I know something which can totally change my phone

    • http://www.zoomingin.net scidox

      Great Article , Thank you very much you really helped me !

  • Joel Joseph

    is it possible to get some info on how to make custom roms?

  • http://www.andorid-trick.com Saj
  • jason

    Great Article!! Thx a lot..!! ^^

  • wedini

    Cleared up many questions I had thank you very much!

  • Frank

    Poor Fandroids, this pathetic. You all have to get customs ROM to use your phone lol. While I'm enjoying the best UI with Windows Phone 7.5. No need to worry of custom roms that might brick my phone lol!!!!

    • lethalgorman

      if you could make your phone better, wouldn't you? No matter how good the phone is, Android can be made better stinger faster, Android has the technology. Who's jelous now

    • Samgal111

      Poor lost sheep you might as well be renting your fon as you can't do anything with it outside windows prison cell. Your also stuck with any and every piece of junk Microsoft and ur carrier choose to throw at you and your also spied on at will and can't do shit about it! CIQ anyone?

    • Melissa

      Windows Phone's do sound nice with the Live Tiles, but I think I prefer the customization of Android better. Also I like that Android has true multitasking unlike iOS or Windows phone.

    • Melissa

      Another thing, because Android is pretty awesome, I can just download a home screen launcher that mimics Windows Phone UI reasonably well without having to root and get a custom rom at all.

    • Ann Perry

      Wow, you got pwned by Microsoft and Nokia!

  • Rohit

    Thank u for this i really needed it ..Awesome

  • aika

    this article's great. just rooted my galaxy 5 and i'm new to all this stuff and i'm glad someone can actually explain everything and make it sound so simple.

  • http://echenze.wordpress.com Emmanuel Chenze

    Great article, i've been rooting and installing custom ROMs on the Huawei U8150 IDEOS for long now. however I'm stuck installing custom ROMs on the Samsung galaxy mini. anyone please help me out. thanks

  • Sameer

    hi all......i m using a samsung galaxy 3(GT i5801)....i know nothing about the custom roms,how to install them,rooting,overclocking & multiboot.....can i get some help???i want to know the detailed procedure about installing a rom,rooting,overclocking a phone & also about multiboot......Thanx in advance....

  • http://Technopsis.blogspot.com Technopsis

    I have installed multiple custom roms on my old HTC Hero now, and I just love how Android allows you to mess around with it this much. I have upgraded my phone to newer version of Android many times using custom roms and lately I tried the HTX Zero 0.21 Rom which installs Android 2.3.5 and Sense 3.5 on my 2.5 year old HTC Hero!

    Very interesting stuff!
    I wrote a review on it if anyone is interested which you can find here: http://technopsis.blogspot.com/2012/02/custom-roms-for-android-upgrade-your.html

  • Khanjee

    Dear Artem! Good day and have a nice life all along. I am absolutely new to Android world as I ONLY bought a new SGSII a week ago. 

    First of all I must say that ur name, which sounds Artem, should change its 'vocal value' and should sound 'OSSAM ;)". 

    Now, why I said this is because the amazing way you explain things with extreme simplicity of expression, extra-ordinary seem less connectivity of topics and elements of discussion, the immense depth of knowledge and on top of it the beautiful, structured and smooth way of 'knowledge transfer' wow! you MUST write books in addition to blogs. 

    Now lastly, I wish if you can provide me a 'personal note' with the possible details about how can I root  my new SGSII with the Android version 2.3.5, baseband version I9100XXKI4, Kernal version root@DELL143 #2 and Build number GINGERBREAD.JPKJ2. Please do me a favor by providing the CFRoot for my phone and IF POSSIBLE the Android Version 4.0 upgrade ROM.

  • Jmercurin413

    I love your article man..
    Good work
    Im searching for a good stable and fast rom for my xperia x10

  • RAJ


  • http://www.facebook.com/Soham.sss Soham Dongargaonkar

    A super silly question
    What if you got a wp7.5 rom? What happens if you flash that?

  • Anders

    So very wonderfully explained!!! Thanx!!!

  • http://twitter.com/moataz_elgamal Moataz El Gamal

    Great Article! Straight to the point and very useful

  • http://www.facebook.com/abhimanyubhayan Abhimanyu Bhayan

    voiding warranty is ok but when bricking device looks pretty good scary

  • guy here

    nice article but you should of mentioned where people can find more info about getting and installing roms

    XDA Developers is the best place for that

  • http://digitalblogindia.in/ Kunal

    Very well written tutorial but no links to sites where we go to get custom roms. Top 5 sites for custom roms would have helped.

  • thequiestioner

    so, Android ROMs are like Linux Distros?

  • gramma

    oh boy! I really screwed my phone up. I have an LG Android LGL55C model. I have been following the instructions on how to root my phone. Did that successfully. Did a complete backup of files yesterday successfully. Today I was walking through these instructions and it said to backup so I did another backup and then my phone crashed. It wont load. when i turn it on it just goes to the logo repeatedly. It wont complete the process so I can see my screen.

    Anyone have any ideas on how I can fix this????? I have repeatedly taken the battery out and restarted it but the same thing happens. I took out the SC card and tried restarting....same thing. So my phone is totally useless at this point. PLEASE help!!!

    As you can tell I am a total virgin to this rooting stuff. I needed to make more room on my internal memory, so that's why I began this process. Oh dear oh dear oh dear! help!!

  • gramma

    oh boy! I really screwed my phone up. I have an LG Android LGL55C model.
    I have been following the instructions on how to root my phone. Did
    that successfully. Did a complete backup of files yesterday
    successfully. Today I was walking through these instructions and it said
    to backup so I did another backup and then my phone crashed. It wont
    load. when i turn it on it just goes to the logo repeatedly. It wont
    complete the process so I can see my screen.

    Anyone have any
    ideas on how I can fix this????? I have repeatedly taken the battery out
    and restarted it but the same thing happens. I took out the SC card and
    tried restarting....same thing. So my phone is totally useless at this
    point. PLEASE help!!!

    As you can tell I am a total virgin to this
    rooting stuff. I needed to make more room on my internal memory, so
    that's why I began this process. Oh dear oh dear oh dear! help!!

    • clay13

      Try a factory reset on the phone. it usually involves booting the phone while holding down a set of the physical buttons(vol+,power). You can google the phone type to find out its sequence. this should bring you into a recovery mode at least.

  • Neil

    First off, I lol'd and fully appreciated what you were trying to say by outsourced monkeys. Couldn't have said it better. "Oh sir, i'm sorry But.." "Yes sir, I understand. But..". If i was looking for someone to listen and console me, i would've called my mother, not tech support.

    More importantly, This has been very informative and helpful in my decision whether or not to root my phone. Thank you very much for your detail work.

  • http://profiles.google.com/mugget mugget man

    Nice article! Nice enough to get me pumped on trying out a custom ROM... and I've only had an Android phone for one week. Haha

  • htc hero

    Cm7 is good rom for my hero,thnx guys..upgrade more for hero :-)

  • Saturn Monkey

    I have a jailbroken iPhone 4, but I won't be staying with Apple much longer. I want to get the s3 or wait for the s4.... I just don't want to brick my phone lol.

  • http://twitter.com/shem2409 Przemyslaw Orawiec
  • gui

    Pretty clear. My galaxy s4 is having battery drain + mediaserver issues. Which custom rom you recommend?

  • johnnyk nul13

    Hi, it is worth while to mention that custom roms are make and model specific. If there is no custom ROM for your tablet or phone, then there is not custom ROM for your tablet or phone. Stop searching and hoping! This is the main downside to this story, the unknown buggy tablets that are the most in need of improvement cannot be helped.

  • Android

    Just visit : romsforandroid.blogspot.com

  • DJ

    Thanks real useful

  • Free thinking person

    I have tried several custom roms on my S3, and I have to say, its just a matter of time before you find a bug. Im switching back to my stock note 2 . Bloatware, yes. Slower, yes. Reduced functionality, yes. But the stock OS is more dependable, so if you conduct important business on your phone, and NEED rock solid dependability, I would not root. Unless you have two phones.

  • Rizzal Hopper

    Thank You. I never knew what was it, I thought it was some kind of scam.

  • Jak Lee Sanders

    I cant hear anything when sombody rings me and they cant hear me everything works fine other than thr call thing ive this phone for 4 weeks help me ?!?!? Please

  • manonyme

    Thankx for a concise, intro to this stuff... Found it very helphful.

  • Edward

    is there any rooting methods for gionee pioneer p1?

  • Srikrishna
  • Mike Tobias

    idk if this has been asked i have not scrolled over the previous comments but if a phone is locked to a carrier, by flashing rom does it able you to use it from different network ?

  • ysh’z

    so nice, so clear,

  • 11111

    Tnx so much!!!

  • Srikrishna Edara

    Does any one know where i can get flasing rom of alps swipe walk n talk

  • sam

    Guess it

  • Carlos

    Should I use a custom rom on my galaxy s5

  • Luanna Dias

    Tomara que funcione

  • mohit

    whatsapp doesnt support custom rom's.. its shown error

  • Kirtiraj

    This was very clear... Cleared all my doubts... Thankew

  • olivier nkamga

    Useful article.It helped me a lot in my understanding of Android systems.Things like ROM,Rooting,flashing..etc.I hope to find another article like this one.Thanks to you guys.

  • joao. pedro

    Eu mero filma eu kiria filma com e ce aplicativo